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A reader wrote in to say that she’s having trouble getting her 2007 Volkswagen Rabbit to complete OBD II monitors. I shared the following drive cycle wither her, and decided to post it here for others experiencing similar issues with their Volkswagen vehicles.
This drive cycle should be valid for Volkswagen engine codes BGP and BGQ.
As with most OBD II monitor drive cycles, a complete warm-up cycle is recommended. In other words, let the vehicle cool down completely and allow the vehicle to warm up to full operating temperature from a cold start before commencing the drive cycle. Also, it might be necessary to perform the drive cycle on a weekend morning when traffic is light.
Drive safely and observe all traffic laws while performing the drive cycle. Several attempts may be required. Rinse and repeat as necessary.
The evaporative emissions control system (EVAP) on your vehicle is designed to prevent fuel vapors from escaping into the atmosphere from your gasoline tank.
Fuel vapors are composed of hydrocarbon molecules (HC) which when exposed to sunlight and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) result in photo-chemical smog. Photo chemical smog is that brown hazy stuff that nobody wants to see in the sky.
These compounds are also known to cause eye irritations and respiratory problems. That’s why hydrocarbon control and reduction is a major component of your car’s emissions control strategy.
When your engine is running and warmed up, engine vacuum siphons stored fuel vapors from the EVAP canister and into the intake manifold. These fuel vapors are added to the engine’s air fuel mixture and are burned off as part of the normal combustion process.
When many people see a “Check Engine Light” (Proper name: Malfunction Indicator Light ; a.k.a MIL) they immediately think, “Check the gas cap”. That’s because a missing, loose, or damaged gas cap often is the cause of an illuminated MIL due to a failed EVAP leak test.
During EVAP testing, a loose or missing gas cap will be detected as a leak, a diagnostic trouble code will be stored, and the MIL will illuminate.
A loose gas cap might result in a P0442 code, (Small leak detected), and a missing cap could return a P0455 (Large leak detected).
Loose and missing gas caps are not the only cause of EVAP system leaks, but they are the number one suspect.
The information presented below is an example of diagnostic strategies that a technician might employ while diagnosing your vehicle’s EVAP system. It is not intended to be exhaustive, complete, or even applicable to all situations. Always follow a vehicle manufacturer’s procedures when performing tests or repairs of any kind.
EVAP related diagnostic trouble codes that turn on your check engine light can be set for a variety of reasons. Some faults are caused by leaks while others can result from blocked lines, faulty sensors, or malfunctioning solenoids.
Some vehicles have had issues with spiders laying eggs in EVAP vent lines while others have problems as simple as corrosion preventing a good seal between the fuel cap and fuel filler neck. There’s more to look out for than bad gas caps.
That’s why its important for you to have your vehicle diagnosed at a shop that employs technicians with the skills, training, and equipment necessary to correctly diagnose and repair your vehicle without wasting your time and money on unnecessary repairs and hopeful guesses.
Before reaching for high tech solutions, a technician should review the basics.
You should be asked questions about your vehicle.
“Have you had any work done on the car?”.
To which you might reply:
“Oh yeah, me and my brother had to drop the gas tank and replace the fuel pump. We had a lot of trouble with one of the seals. It got a little chewed up, but my brother said it would be fine”.
A little information goes a long way towards finding the solution to a problem.
The technician diagnosing your vehicle should also look for EVAP related Technical Service Bulletins (TSBs). Are there any known issues with the vehicle that could explain the presence of the diagnostic trouble code.
There was an issue with my wife’s 2005 Toyota Corolla that caused several false EVAP diagnostic codes to set.
Before doing anything else, I checked for recalls and technical service bulletins. It didn’t take me long to find out that Toyota had issued a recall, and her Corolla was one of the affected vehicles.
An ECM manufacturing flaw was causing false EVAP codes to set. A few minutes of research saved me from a few weeks of pulling my hair out trying to find the problem.
When I asked my wife, she said that she received the recall letter, but didn’t think that it was important because the “car drove fine”.
EVAP control strategies vary from manufacturer, model, and model year. Understanding a system and how it works is the essential first step towards identifying a problem with a system when it doesn’t work according to design.
A technician will look for loose, missing, or damaged components.
We will often wiggle wires and hoses while looking, listening, and even sniffing for changes.
We’ll remove the gas cap and look for damage to the gas cap, o-ring, and filler neck. While reinstalling the gas cap we’ll pay close attention to how it fits. Sometimes an incorrect gas cap will look right, but it will not fit right. We’ll listen for clicks. Does it sound like the cap “locked”?
We’ll use our sense of smell. The presence of a strong fuel odor, especially during low pressure fuel EVAP testing, is often the first indication that the EVAP system has been compromised
We’ll look again. Is there a puddle of gasoline under the vehicle? Clearly the EVAP system will not seal if there is a large hole in the gas tank.
Smoke testing is a common and effective way to pinpoint the location of leaks in a vehicle’s evaporative emissions control system.
While smoke testing for leaks, the EVAP system should be sealed. The purge valve is normally closed, but a technician will usually need to command the EVAP system’s vent valve closed using a scan tool.
I like to start by test the EVAP system with all components in place. If possible, I’ll introduce smoke through the EVAP system’s test port. The EVAP test port is schrader valve often located in the engine compartment of a vehicle and easily recognized by a green cap.
I’ll then look for smoke leaking from valves, EVAP lines, around the fuel cap, the fuel filler neck, and around the gas tank.
If I see smoke I’ve found a leak (Not necessarily all leaks). Once the leak has been repaired, I’ll repeat the test and ensure that there are no other leaks.
If no smoke is seen on the initial test, I’ll introduce smoke from the fuel filler neck. I’ll then look leaks at, or near, the fuel the test port that may have missed when with the smoke tester was attached.
If I still do not see smoke, I’ll reconnect the smoke machine to the EVAP test port and start testing the valves themselves for leaks. For example, I might disconnect the hose on the canister side of the purge valve. Since the purge valve is normally closed, any smoke exiting the purge valve at this stage would be a pretty good indication of a leak.
The same is true for smoke exiting a vent valve that has been commanded closed. The valve might be leaking, or there could be a problem on the command side of the circuit (Perhaps a bad ground is preventing activation of the valve), or the valve may have failed electrically. By testing the circuit and the component I can quickly identify the point of failure.
I’ll also disconnect electrical connectors while smoking the system. We recently had a Dodge Caravan in the shop that showed no sign of a leak until we disconnected the electrical connector at the leak detection pump (Kind of ironic isn’t it), suddenly smoke started pouring out of the connector. With the harness in place there was no sign of a leak.
A diagnostic trouble code indicating an EVAP leak is only as reliable as the system that triggered it.
For example: A faulty fuel tank pressure sensor might cause the on-board diagnostic system to falsely indicate a leak.
It’s possible to test the fuel tank pressure sensor without removing parts.
Any shop performing EVAP diagnostics and repairs should have a scan tool (Preferably bi-directional), and at least one of the following:
A Smoke Machine
A Low Pressure Fuel Evap Tester (LPFET)
First, I’ll connect the scan tool to the vehicle’s diagnostic link connector (DLC) and observe the Fuel Tank Pressure Sensor parameter.
The next step is to safely change the pressure in the fuel tank. After noting the Fuel Tank Pressure Sensor value, I connect my smoke machine, or my LPFET, to the fuel filler neck. make sure you have a good seal. (Again, be sure to observe all manufacturer warnings and procedures. Refer to your equipment manufacturer’s documentation to determine the amount of pressure your tool will add to the tank.)
Again, I’ll observe the Fuel Tank Pressure Sensor value on my scan tool. I should observe an increase in pressure as compared to the original reading. If the value does not change, or does not increase according to the amount of pressure applied by my equipment, and I have verified that the EVAP system is sealed, I’ll suspect a faulty Fuel Tank Pressure Sensor.
This is just one example how direct observation and an understanding of how a vehicle’s EVAP system works can help diagnose a sensor problem after an EVAP system leak has been ruled out.
As OBD II diagnostics and EVAP emissions control strategies become more complex and sophisticated, EVAP diagnostics and repairs are a frequent challenge faced by technicians in the field.
When diagnosing EVAP system related diagnostic trouble codes, as with most codes, its important to remember that diagnostic trouble codes are merely a starting point for diagnosis, and not the solution.
A technician should observe the basics, do his homework, and understand how to use the tools at his disposal.
If you’re in Huntington Beach, Fountain Valley, Long Beach, or the surrounding areas and your vehicle has failed a smog inspection because of an EVAP related problem, you can roll the dice with one of those other guys and hope they know the difference between P0442 and a P0443, or you could call the ASE certified professionals at Just Smogs® in Huntington Beach and have your car diagnosed by a team that has the knowledge, training, and skill to do more than just throw parts at a problem.
Call Just Smogs today at (714) 596-1019, or you could try going at it yourself, but who wants to deal with spiders in the vent line?
The Crane Fly, also known as, Daddy Long Legs, Skeeter Eater, Mosquito Hawk, Giant Mosquito, or, as my wife likes to call them, “I don’t care if you kill it, but just get that thing out of the house!”
I can’t think of a more misunderstood bug than the simple Crane fly.
Have you noticed that these little critters seem to have taken over the world this spring?
The wet weather we’ve been having lately has provided the perfect breeding ground for Crane flies and other bugs.
But no worries, unlike their nasty little lookalikes, Crane flies won’t suck your blood or spread disease.
No matter what my mother seems to think Crane flies are not mosquitoes.
Some adult Crane flies have adapted to drink water, nectar, and even honey, but most rarely eat.
“There has yet to be found a predatory adult crane fly,” said Matthew Bertone, PhD, a crane fly specialist and extension associate with the North Carolina State University Department of Entomology. “They just don’t have the mouth parts for it. So no, none are blood-feeding, and none of them attack people.”
Despite the colloquial name “Skeeter Eater”, and what many of us thought when we were kids, Crane flies do not eat mosquitoes.
They just fly around your house, bank into the occasional wall, or light fixture, and die in about a day, so will somebody tell my wife that I don’t need to hunt these things? I guess that I should just repair that torn screen.
In this post I’ll go over aftermarket catalytic converters, why its important to select a catalytic converter that has been approved for your vehicle, and what smog inspectors look for when inspecting catalytic converters during a smog inspection.
This is going to be a long post, so if all you want is a quick summary, feel free to skip to the end.
… passed the smog inspection with flying colors except the tech says he can’t find a number on the cat and so he’s failing it … Is this a thing, or is the guy scamming me?
Catalytic converters contain a slurry of three rare earth metals (Platinum, palladium, and rhodium) that are used to reduce and convert harmful combustion gasses before they enter the atmosphere. All three of these metals are extremely expensive. For example, the price of platinum on March 9, 2017, was over $947 per troy ounce.
If your vehicle is well maintained and in good working order, its catalytic converter(s) should last for the lifetime of the vehicle.
However mechanical malfunctions can damage catalytic converters and cause them to fail. Ignition misfires are especially harmful.
Did you know?
Did you know, that a flashing check engine light usually indicates a sever catalyst damaging misfire that should be repaired without delay?
Other reasons for catalytic converter replacement include theft, incorrect diagnosis of fault codes, and the far too common practice of attempting to mask emissions control issues with new catalytic converters.
In the past substituting a “bargain cat” for proper repairs was easier to get away with because labeling requirements were unclear, and it was often difficult for smog inspectors to identify incorrect catalytic converter applications.
When I first got my smog license, I met a customer who claimed that he made two appointments every two years; one with his muffler guy for a new catalytic converter, and one with my boss for a smog inspection. He was almost proud of the fact that he bought a new catalytic converter every two years.
It wasn’t uncommon for people to buy cheap/universal catalytic converters specifically for the purpose of “getting through” a tailpipe emissions test. Very often those catalytic converters were so cheaply made that they might make it through a smog inspection but not much further down the road.
The worse part was that perfectly good factory parts were often replaced by low quality aftermarket catalytic converters when a simple repair was all that was necessary.
Catalytic Converter Labeling Requirements
- Labels must be permanent and indestructible
- Labels must be placed in a location easily readable after installation
- Labels must use letters and numbers that are at least half an inch and readable within five feet.
- Catalytic converters must be stamped with a directional flow arrow
- Must include executive order exemption number (D-###-###), manufacturer part number, and date of manufacture
OEM (Original equipment manufacturer – factory) catalytic converters are a great choice for those of us who can afford them, but very often the difference in price between a “factory cat” and an aftermarket catalytic converter can add up to hundreds of dollars (Sometimes thousands if more than one catalytic converter requires replacement).
No person shall install, sell, offer for sale, or advertise any device, apparatus, or mechanism intended for use with, or as a part of, a required motor vehicle pollution control device or system that alters or modifies the original design or performance of the motor vehicle pollution control device or system.
Aftermarket catalytic converters must be exempted from California’s anti-tampering laws in order to be legally sold and installed in the state. If an aftermarket catalytic converter is shown to be durable and meets vehicle emission control requirements, it is granted an exemption Executive Order (EO) that allows it to be installed on specific emission controlled vehicles.
If an ounce of platinum costs $947, rhodium $930, and palladium $773 an ounce, how much of each could possibly be in a catalytic converter sold for as little as forty-one dollars? The answer is, not enough to qualify for sale in the State of California!
In order to be legally sold and installed in California, a catalytic converter must undergo extensive testing to prove that it is durable and meets emission control requirements. It’s not enough for a catalytic converter to “just get you through your next smog”, it must be built to last.
Did you know?
Did you know, that aftermarket catalytic converter installers in the State of California are legally obligated to provide you with a five year/fifty-thousand mile warranty on parts and labor? Did you receive your warranty card?
Aftermarket catalytic converters sold in the State of California must be proven to have a minimum durability of 5 years/50,000 miles.
When inspecting a vehicle’s catalytic converters, the first thing we check for is original equipment.
If a vehicle is equipped with OEM (factory) catalytic converters our job is almost complete. We still need to ensure that all catalytic converters are present, undamaged, unmodified, and installed in their original locations.
There are two sets of rules that smog inspectors are required to follow when inspecting aftermarket catalytic converters:
When inspecting aftermarket catalytic converters installed on pre-OBD II vehicles, smog inspectors in the State of California must first follow all of the same rules that apply to OEM catalytic converters.
A word about installation:
In addition to installing catalytic converters in their original location and configuration, installers must also ensure that they follow all manufacturer guidelines.
Some catalytic converters have the word “TOP” stamped or engraved on one side (Usually on the heat shield). Very often they will come into the shop installed “upside down”. In addition to the non-shielded side being exposed to the vehicle’s floorboard, the executive order exemption number, manufacturer part number, and date of manufacturer will not be visible.
In most cases the smog inspector inspecting the vehicle will enter “Tamper” or “Modified” for the catalytic converter, and the vehicle will fail the smog inspection.
All required catalytic converters must be present and properly installed in their original factory locations and configuration. Again, catalytic converters must not be modified or damaged.
When inspecting aftermarket catalytic converters installed on pre-OBD II vehicles, smog inspectors in the State of California must also ensure that all aftermarket catalytic converters installed on the vehicle comply with applicable labeling requirements (See above).
Unlike OBD II vehicles (Discussed below), inspectors are not required to verify specific vehicle applications when inspecting pre-OBD II vehicles; however, the catalytic converter must be approved for the vehicle category (PC 1, PC 2, T1, T2, etc).
A PC 1 passenger car can not be equipped with a catalytic converter that has been approved for T1 vehicles.
Again, OBD II aftermarket catalytic must follow the same rules regarding placement, configuration, and condition that apply to OEM and pre-OBD II catalytic converters.
In addition to those rules, OBD II aftermarket catalytic converters must be approved by CARB for specific vehicle applications.
The following information must match on all OBD II aftermarket catalytic converter applications:
When it comes to inspecting aftermarket catalytic converters (Especially on OBD II vehicles), CARB’s catalytic converter database is the smog inspectors bible.
After selecting a vehicle’s manufacturer, model year, model, and engine size from the database’s drop down menus, the database returns a list of all CARB approved catalytic converters for the selected vehicle.
Your muffler guy may make a lot of reasonable arguments, but if a catalytic converter is not CARB approved for your vehicle it will not pass a California state smog inspection.
To determine the correct catalytic converter part number for your vehicle, you will need its make, model, model year, engine size and test group/engine family designation.
The engine family or test group is the one field that seems to create the most confusion among installers, consumers, and even some smog inspectors.
All vehicles sold in the United States have a unique drive-train identifier called the “Test Group” or “Engine Family Number”. This number allows owners, parts suppliers, and service providers to determine specifications and installed emissions control equipment of motor vehicles. Because many vehicles may have several different configurations, this number will provide specific information about the emissions control system and exact standards that a vehicle was designed to meet.
In many cases a single character in the test group will be the determining factor between a passing catalytic converter, and a failed smog inspection.
On Federal/EPA certified vehicles (Those that are not California emissions certified), EFN does not need to match since only CARB approved EFNs are listed in the database. However, all other requirements apply.
Q. Federal vehicles are not listed in California application catalog. How do I determine what catalytic converter to install on a federal vehicle?
A. Find a catalytic converter exempted for a California vehicle that is of the same make, model, and model year as the federal vehicle, except for the engine family. Install the catalytic converter on the federal vehicle and make a note on your invoice and warranty card that it is a federal vehicle.
Application type can be 2WD, AWD, 4WD, ALL, etc. We don’t see this very often, but it is possible for a catalytic converter to be approved for two wheel drive applications, but not four wheel drive, or the other way around.
The manufacturer of the catalytic converter.
The catalytic converter’s manufacturer part number.
The part number must be an exact match.
82633 and 82633R are not a match.
The catalytic converter’s executive order exemption number.
By clicking on the executive order number in the list, you can view a PDF of the actual executive order for the exemption.
The executive order document will list information regarding specific vehicles and manufacturer part numbers covered by the executive order.
The total number of catalytic converters that should be installed on the vehicle.
Not all catalytic converters installed on a vehicle serve the same function. When inspecting aftermarket catalytic converters, it is important for an inspector to ensure that all catalytic converters are installed in the correct location.
Affected converters sold on or before their rescission or withdrawal date, are legal for use and installation in California. Affected converters sold after their rescission or withdrawal date, are not legal for use or installation in California.
An executive order exemption that is listed as Rescinded is one that has been rescinded (cancelled) by CARB.
An executive order exemption that is listed as Withdrawn is one that has been withdrawn by the manufacturer.
In either case, rescinded or withdrawn, it is not legal to advertise, sell, or install affected catalytic converters after the date of rescission or withdrawal.
You can find the date of rescission or withdrawal by clicking on the executive order number in the catalytic converter database listing. The applicable date will appear stamped across the executive order PDF document.
CARB goofed a few years ago and published the wrong information for certain Toyota Sequoia and Tundra pickup trucks. As a result Sequoia’s and Tundra’s failed smog inspections, and the wrong number of catalytic converters were installed based on CARB’s information.
Fortunately CARB decided to play fair. CARB is allowing use of catalytic converters installed based on the wrong information as long as the installation occurred during the affected period.
This was a long post, so let’s summarize.
If any of the above do not match, the vehicle will not pass a California smog inspection, and a smog certificate will not be issued.
Catalytic converter visual inspections constitute just one part of the California smog inspection, but if you have made it this far, you now know that it takes a lot of knowledge to do it right.
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Saint Patrick’s Day is one of the largest celebrations around the world, with Irish and non-Irish alike celebrating all things Irish on March 17.
Saint Patrick (Latin: Patricius; Irish: Pádraig) was a fifth century Romano-British missionary and Bishop in Ireland. Known as the “Apostle of Ireland”, Saint Patrick is the primary patron saint of Ireland.
Saint Patrick is believed to have been captured by pirates at around the age of fifteen. He was sold into slavery and tended sheep in Ireland for approximately six years until he escaped and gained passage back to England. He eventually became a cleric before returning to Ireland as a Christian missionary.
Although only a legal holiday in Suffolk County, Massachusetts, in the United States Saint Patrick’s day celebrations have grown in size since it was first observed in the Thirteen Colonies on March 17, 1737. Today, New York’s Saint Patrick’s Day parade is not only the largest in the nation, but also the largest in the world.
The Just Smogs® team would like to take this opportunity to wish all our friends and customers a happy and safe Saint Patrick’s day, and as our Irish friends say, May the best day of your past be the worst day of your future.
1976 to current model year vehicles are subject to smog inspection.
All 1976 and newer model year vehicles entering the State of California require a smog certification prior to initial registration
Change of ownership smog inspections are required after the fourth model year
A 2016 model year gasoline powered vehicle would be subject to change of ownership smog inspections beginning in 2020 (2016 + 4 = 2020).
Biennial (Every two years) smog inspections begin after the sixth model year.
A 2016 model year gasoline powered vehicle would be subject to biennial smog inspections beginning in 2022 (2016 + 6 = 2022).
A good rule of thumb is that even number model years are due for smog inspections on even numbered years. Odd numbered model years are due on odd number years.
This year (2017) we started performing biennial smog inspections 2011 model year vehicles. We’re also inspecting 2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001, 1999, etc.
The only difference between hybrid/gasoline powered vehicles is that hybrids become subject to smog inspections beginning with model year 2000 instead of 1976.
Diesel powered vehicles under 14,000 pounds GVWR become subject to biennial smog inspections beginning with the 1998 model year.
Unlike the vehicles described above, diesels do not have a four year change of ownership exemption, nor do diesels have a six year new vehicle exemption.
In most cases, the answer is yes.
If your your 1976 or newer motor home (RV) is gasoline powered, and more than four years old, it is subject to smog inspections in the state of California.
If your 1998 or newer motor home (RV) is diesel powered and has a GVWR of 14,000 pounds or less it is subject to smog inspections in the state of California.
Click here for more information about smog requirements by vehicle type.
Most 1996 – 1999 model year gasoline powered vehicles will fail the California smog inspection if two or more OBD II monitors are incomplete. Any one OBD 2 readiness monitor can be incomplete and a gasoline powered car will pass the smog inspection.
Most 2000 and newer gasoline powered vehicles are subject to stricter rules. A 2000 or newer model year vehicle will fail the smog inspection if any monitor other than the EVAP monitor is incomplete.
Most 1998 – 2006 OBD II certified diesel powered vehicles will fail the smog inspection if any monitors are incomplete. All OBD II monitors must be complete in order for a 1998 – 2006 model year OBD II certified diesel powered vehicle to pass the California state smog inspection.
Most 2007 and newer model year OBD II diesel powered vehicles can pass with two incomplete monitors. If more than two monitors are incomplete the vehicle will fail the smog inspection.
Some vehicles are known to have difficulties completing OBD II monitors and may be subject to different rules. For more information see the Smog Check OBD Reference.
When a car is sold, who is responsible for the inspection?
The seller is required to provide the buyer with a valid smog inspection certification at the time of the sale or transfer. Smog certifications are good for 90 days from the date of issuance.
Unless a car is being sold to:
The short answer is that the State of California is looking out for your interests. The idea is to prevent someone from dumping their problem car on you.
We recently had a BMW in the shop. The customer bought the car without a smog. He thought he got a great deal until he learned that the vehicle would require several thousand dollars worth of repairs before it would pass a smog inspection. Needless to say, our customer no longer believes that he got such a great deal.
The state will allow a transfer to occur if a vehicle has received an emissions certification within the last 90 days, but a lot can happen in 90 days.
Maybe the car squeaked through its last inspection. Maybe something that was getting ready to go went. Perhaps fraud was involved.
The Vehicle Emissions System Statement is a DMV form that even most smog inspectors don’t know about.
The seller is required to furnish the purchaser this statement if a transfer application is submitted to the department within 90 days of the submission of a valid smog certification that was not obtained specifically for the transfer…
… You may have this vehicle tested at a licensed smog check station prior to completion of this transaction to verify compliance. If the vehicle passes the test, you shall be responsible for the costs of the test. If the vehicle fails the test, the seller is obligated to reimburse you the cost of having the vehicle tested and, without expense to you, must have the vehicle repaired to comply with specified emissions standards prior to completion of this transaction.
Excerpt from :
DMV REG 139 (REV.5/2007)
Vehicle Emissions System Statement
While having a current smog certificate can be a selling point, it can be in the interest of the buyer to have the results of the last smog inspection independently verified.
In today’s vehicles emissions problems are often related to issues that affect fuel economy and driveability. You might be out the price of a smog inspection, or you could save yourself a lot of headaches down the road.
I always recommend checking a vehicles smog check history.
The smog check history of every vehicle that has been inspected under the modern smog check program in the State of California is available at:
You can search for a vehicle’s smog check history by license plate or vehicle identification number (VIN). I always recommend searching by VIN, especially if that old car you’re thinking about just happens to have a brand spanking new license plate.
If you spot a repeating pattern of several failed smog inspection followed by a single pass, the car in question might not be the car you’re looking for.
I hear you. Some of us can’t afford a new car, while others don’t want a new car. Either way, it’s important to protect yourself.
When buying a used car, always remember to:
And most important of all, to ensure peace of mind, have the vehicle inspected by the dedicated STAR certified professionals at Just Smogs® in Huntington Beach. Click here to make an appointment.